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We have all experienced confusion at one time or another. 


Usually it is momentary such waking up after a cat nap. In some patients with cancer confusion can be a distressing problem for the patients themselves and their carers. Wherever possible, the underlying cause of the patient's confusion should be investigated and treated as appropriate. This information sheet summarizes the causes of confusion and possible ways to alleviate it.

Causes of confusion:

Salts & chemicals - eg. Dehydration / High calcium  / High or low sodium / High or low glucose

Drugs - eg Morphine & other opioids / codeine / cimetidine / steroids / benzodiazepines / digoxin

Infection - eg chest, bladder or more seriously meningitis